What brought about the excessive temperature of the Big Bang? | Scientists reply | Science | EUROtoday

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The very first thing I would like is so that you can perceive temperature in relation to warmth. In on a regular basis life we ​​perceive that when one thing is at a really excessive temperature, for instance a pot that’s sizzling, what we’re perceiving is the flexibility for an alternate of power to happen within the type of warmth between the thing that’s at a better temperature. and the one that’s on the lowest temperature. That is, we perceive temperature as a means of realizing what has extra warmth power.

All the power measurements we now have from the Big Bang, each mass and pure power, for instance within the type of radiation, we will determine or affiliate with a temperature based mostly on what statistical physics tells us.

In your query you inform us how the very excessive temperature of the Big Bang might be reached if there have been nonetheless no stars. The reply is that you just didn't want the celebrities to achieve it. What was wanted was that one thing existed, which, on this case, was mass and power. That mass and power arose from small fluctuations within the vacuum. Due to those fluctuations, particles come up, radiation arises and fields come up. That's the very first thing that occurs. Without that background we couldn’t discuss temperature. If there may be nothing, as I defined at first, there might be no temperature as a result of there might be no alternate of power within the type of warmth.

From right here we now have to ask ourselves in what state is the whole lot that has emerged. That matter and that radiation which have appeared by some quantum course of might be interpreted by way of an power. What we now have then are particles with mass, like a quark, and particles with out mass, like a photon. What we interpret as temperature is a measure of how a lot power is there and the way that power might be exchanged between the totally different constituent components of that very early universe.

The dough may be very compressed. To provide you with an concept, it’s like after we squeeze the air contained in the bicycle wheels with a piston pump. If we put quite a lot of air in the identical quantity, the temperature will increase. Initially, earlier than the explosion occurred (the Big Bang), all that mass occupied a really, very small quantity. At the identical time there have been quite a lot of massless particles, radiation, which can also be related to power. And that was additionally in a really compact area, that’s, it was very dense, so it additionally had quite a lot of power related to it, which reached a really excessive temperature.

The temperature at that second was so nice that there has by no means been a temperature like that once more, as a result of there have by no means been mass and power densities as excessive as these. Since then, for the reason that Big Bang, the universe has continued to chill and increase. The power that the particles had has been launched since then. That power linked some particles to others, by increasing and breaking these forces that tied some particles to others, the power has been launched and has develop into thermal power and that’s what makes the universe not as chilly as it might have been. got here to be resulting from that progressive cooling course of that I used to be telling you about.

Ruth Lazkoz She is a theoretical physicist, professor and researcher on the University of the Basque Country. Her strains of labor are theoretical and observational cosmology, darkish power and modified gravity.

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Coordination and writing: Victoria Toro

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